火力发电厂的灵活性

聚焦现有燃煤发电厂

  • 研究

过去几十年,由于成本大幅下降,风能和太阳能对全球电力系统脱碳化的贡献愈来愈大。鉴于风能和太阳能的波动性等特征,这些技术将从根本上改变电力系统和电力市场。更多的波动性电源提高了整个电力系统对灵活性的要求,这既包括供应的灵活性,也包括需求的灵活性。有人声称,现有传统发电厂,特别是燃煤发电厂,将无法适应随天气变化的风力发电和太阳能发电。因此,弃风弃光现象在某些国家和地区的电力系统中愈发常见。然而,本报告的研究结果证明,提高现有发电厂的灵活性在技术和经济上均是可行的。鉴于灵活性(而非基本负荷发电)是现代电力系统的核心,在某种程度上,可以认为提高现有燃煤发电厂和燃气发电厂的灵活性是其与时俱进的必备条件。灵活性并不会使煤变得清洁。但是,在向以可再生能源为基础的电力系统的过渡阶段,灵活性改造可以使现有燃煤发电厂成为可再生能源的重要伙伴。中长期看来,燃煤发电厂将被其它的清洁能源技术所取代,如在风能和太阳能供应不足时能提供电力的储能技术。

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主要结论

  1. 1

    Existing thermal power plants can provide much more flexibility than often assumed, as experience in Germany and Denmark shows.

    Coal-fired power plants are in most cases less flexible compared to gas-fired generation units. But as Germany and Denmark demonstrate, aging hard coal fired power plants (and even some lignite-fired power plants) are already today providing large operational flexibility. They are adjusting their output on a 15-minute basis (intraday market) and even on a 5-minute basis (balancing market) to variation in renewable generation and demand.

  2. 2

    Numerous technical possibilities exist to increase the flexibility of existing coal power plants. Improving the technical flexibility usually does not impair the efficiency of a plant, but it puts more strain on components, reducing their lifetime.

    Targeted retrofit measures have been implemented in practice on existing power plants, leading to higher ramp rates, lower minimum loads and shorter start-up times. Operating a plant flexibly increases operation and maintenance costs — however, these increases are small compared to the fuel savings associated with higher shares of renewable generation in the system.

  3. 3

    Flexible coal is not clean, but making existing coal plants more flexible enables the integration of more wind and solar power in the system. However, when gas is competing with coal, carbon pricing remains necessary to achieve a net reduction in CO2.

    In some power systems, especially when gas is competing against coal, the flexible operation of coal power plants can lead to increased CO2 emissions. In those systems, an effective climate policy (e.g. carbon pricing) remains a key precondition for achieving a net reduction in CO2 emissions.

  4. 4

    In order to fully tap the flexibility potential of coal and gas power plants, it is crucial to adapt power markets.

    Proper price signals give incentives for the flexible operation of thermal power plants. Thus, the introduction of short-term electricity markets and the adjustment of balancing power arrangements are important measures for remunerating flexibility.

书目信息

    • 出版日期

      06/2017

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