灵活性

电力供应波动较大的能源系统必须采取一切措施来平衡供需。

能源革命对德国的电力系统提出了重大挑战。电力结构已经发生了很大变化,如今可再生能源已占电力生产25%的份额。尤其是风能和光伏发电,将成为未来电力系统的主要可再生能源技术。电力系统将不得不应对大量这种来自不可控发电方式的不稳定或波动性电力。这样一来,灵活性将成为新电力系统的中心宗旨。

将来,有时会出现仅风力和太阳能发电厂就会生产高于电力需求的电力的情况。但在另外的时候,这些资源却几乎不能为满足电力需求做出任何贡献。其结果就是,对剩余容量的需求(即储备中的常规发电厂)将比以前更加不均衡。常规发电厂将不得不应对更频繁和极端的负载变化。

剩余容量需求的高峰时段(当高电力需求与风能和太阳能发电量低的情况同时出现时),灵活的电力生产商、电力存储方式和电力进口都发挥着重要作用,但也需要灵活的电力用户减少他们的电力消耗以帮助平衡供需方面。相反地,剩余容量的非高峰需求期(当电力需求低而风能和太阳能的产电量高的时候),在将电力存储和出口之外,将灵活的电力消费转移到这些时段也是很有意义的。

本质上,关于灵活性的问题是关于怎样尽可能地匹配发电量和用电量并确保安全的电力供应。竞争性市场使利用价格信号成为可能,来有效地刺激长期和短期需求所需的灵活性。这样可以安全地管理极端情况下负载快速变化和意外变化的情况。面临的挑战将是如何使价格信号不失真,来确保供需双方所有的灵活性选项都得到最佳运用,从而降低系统的整体成本。

相应地,灵活性主题涵盖了从化石燃料电站到热电联产和生物质能发电厂的各种发电技术(例如,降低最小功率、加速启动时间、加速能力等)、负载管理、跨部门技术例如电热集成(将多余的电能转化为热量)、电力存储技术,当然还有电网。

自由和公平的竞争应激活所有可以最有效满足需求的选项。面临的挑战是创建一种市场和监管设计,以打破实现真正灵活性的道路上的那些障碍,并为所有灵活性选项提供一个公平竞争的环境来取得被运用的平等机会。

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主要结论

  1. 1

    Existing thermal power plants can provide much more flexibility than often assumed, as experience in Germany and Denmark shows.

    Coal-fired power plants are in most cases less flexible compared to gas-fired generation units. But as Germany and Denmark demonstrate, aging hard coal fired power plants (and even some lignite-fired power plants) are already today providing large operational flexibility. They are adjusting their output on a 15-minute basis (intraday market) and even on a 5-minute basis (balancing market) to variation in renewable generation and demand.

  2. 2

    Numerous technical possibilities exist to increase the flexibility of existing coal power plants. Improving the technical flexibility usually does not impair the efficiency of a plant, but it puts more strain on components, reducing their lifetime.

    Targeted retrofit measures have been implemented in practice on existing power plants, leading to higher ramp rates, lower minimum loads and shorter start-up times. Operating a plant flexibly increases operation and maintenance costs — however, these increases are small compared to the fuel savings associated with higher shares of renewable generation in the system.

  3. 3

    Flexible coal is not clean, but making existing coal plants more flexible enables the integration of more wind and solar power in the system. However, when gas is competing with coal, carbon pricing remains necessary to achieve a net reduction in CO2.

    In some power systems, especially when gas is competing against coal, the flexible operation of coal power plants can lead to increased CO2 emissions. In those systems, an effective climate policy (e.g. carbon pricing) remains a key precondition for achieving a net reduction in CO2 emissions.

  4. 4

    In order to fully tap the flexibility potential of coal and gas power plants, it is crucial to adapt power markets.

    Proper price signals give incentives for the flexible operation of thermal power plants. Thus, the introduction of short-term electricity markets and the adjustment of balancing power arrangements are important measures for remunerating flexibility.

研究成果 : 火力发电厂的灵活性

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