Southeast Asia is constituted by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam.
Grouped together, Southeast Asia is the world’s seventh largest economy. In the past 15 years ASEAN’s primary energy demand has grown by 70 percent. The GDP has doubled over the same period and the region is projected to become the fourth biggest economy by 2050. Paired with demographic dynamism and target for 100 percent electrification rate, a significant increase in energy demand is expected. The IEA projects the electricity demand to grow 3.6 percent annually, twice the global average.
The regions’ neighbours China and India have established themselves as worldwide leaders in renewable energy. In 2017, both countries have installed 19 gigawatts of wind energy and 62.6 gigawatts of solar energy, taking first steps towards moving away from a largely fossil fuel-based economy. In Southeast Asia, however, fossil fuels, in particular coal, continue to dominate the region’s generation mix with more than 80 percent share. The ASEAN targets 23 percent renewable energy in the 2025 energy mix. The falling costs of renewable energy technology that drive the transition towards cleaner energy systems elsewhere, are not yet seen in Southeast Asia, where political, regulatory, and economic barriers are still high. The hydro-dominated renewable energy landscape of ASEAN countries presents its own challenges and opportunities in integrating higher share of variable renewables into the grid.
Based on its rich experience in accompanying the energy transition in Germany and Europe, paired with an appreciation for fundamental political differences, Agora Energiewende is cooperating with local partner organisations in contributing to Southeast Asian countries’ energy transition. Since 2017, Agora Energiewende has entered into partnerships with Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR) (Indonesia) and The Clean Energy and Sustainable Development lab (CleanED) in Vietnam, with the goal to developing pathway for an affordable, clean and reliable energy supply.
Activities includes analysis of future projection of electricity demand and generation capacity scenarios, renewable energy integration in growing demand, energy transition dialogue and information exchanges on lessons learned and good practices. Agora Energiewende also supports the partner organisations in strengthening their capacity and facilitate access to knowledge, research, and information exchanges.